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1- and bolt / 2- bolt in / 3- nut and

Bolts are the most popular fixing device in engineering. They are used either with nuts or screwed directly into a threaded hole in one of the workpieces, for example cylinder block. A stud is a bolt without a head. One end is screwed into a workpiece, the other is used with a nut. The advantage of using studs and nuts instead of bolts is that components such as cylinder heads can be taken off without taking apart the whole fixing.


4- washer / 5- washer / 6- washer / 7-


8- washer / 9- and 10- / 11- nut

With non-moving parts we use flat washers beneath the head of the bolt or its nut to protect the workpiece. Washers also make it easier to remove components for maintenance or repair.
With moving parts we use a lock washer such as a spring washer or a tooth washer to stop the bolt or nut from becoming loose. In extreme conditions such as steering gears, we can use a lock nut, castle nut and split pin, a tab washer or locking wire to make sure that bolts don’t undo.


12- bolt / 13- bolt / 14- bolt

Bolts have several types of head. The choice of head depends mainly on the space available. Hexagonal bolts have a six-sided head which can be turned with a spanner or socket wrench. They are easy to turn, come in many sizes, can withstand a high torque (Drehkraft) and can be used many times. On the other hand, hexagonal bolts need a lot of space because tools are positioned on their outer surface.
To get round the space problem we use hexagonal socket bolts that can be turned with an Allen key. The big advantage of socket bolts is that they can be positioned close to each other and in small spaces. It is also possible to make them with a countersunk head that is flush (bündig) with the workpiece.